Pressure vessels and safety requirements
The concept of stress
A concept of pressure in a pressure vessel is the force that is vertically directed at the unit of area of the object. The exact title should be called the pressure intensity, but in general are called pressure. Pressure units are usually atmospheric pressure, the project unit system with kilograms of force / cm 2 revealed the performance of low pressure or water column or mercury performance. Pressure units in the country are different, invalid "bar" ("Pa"), Newton (N) or pounds and so on.
The pressure in the pressure vessel is measured with a pressure gauge. The pressure indicated on the pressure gauge is called gauge pressure. It is the pressure value that reveals that the external medium of the container exceeds the atmospheric pressure. The absolute pressure inside the container should be the pressure indicated on the pressure gauge plus the atmospheric pressure in the vicinity.
Containers and pressure vessels
Container is formed by the curved surface space for holding material components, which is chemical, oil refining, pharmaceuticals, food and other equipment used in the production of the external shell of the general term. The container is roughly formed by the cylinder body, head (end cap), flange, support, receiving, manhole, hand hole and sight glass.
Pressure vessel refers to the closed container used in industrial production to realize the production process of feedback, mass transfer, heat transfer, meta-storage and storage, and can withstand the pressure. Contained pressure medium sealed containers are collectively referred to as pressure vessels.
Pressure vessel safety demand
As the pressure vessel is pressure equipment, is in a variety of media and conditions to exercise, so once breed destroyed its destruction is often very old fire. In order to produce safely, many industrial countries regard boilers and pressure vessels as an extraordinary equipment. They set up special agencies to develop safe supervision and apply for standardized development plans, production, application and operation in strict accordance with the rules and regulations. China's pressure vessels involved in the basic laws and norms are:
(1) "Special Equipment Safety Supervision Regulations"
(2) "Pressure Vessel Safety Monitoring Regulations"
(3) Regulations on the Accreditation and Handling of Pressure Vessels and Pressure Piping Project Units
(4) "Boiler and Pressure Vessel Supervisor Oversight Mode"
(5) GB150 "steel pressure vessel"
(6) GB151 "shell and tube heat exchanger"
(7) JB4732 "Steel Pressure Vessels - Specification of Elaborating Project"